1. Systemize Literature of GNSS/PNT Threats to Highly Automated Transportation Systems (HATS)

Objective: Gather and systematize existing knowledge and identify gaps in knowledge/practice related to:

  • Inertially-coupled GNSS receivers
  • Non-GNSS radionavigation via signals of opportunity (SOPs) and dedicated terrestrial beacons
  • Radar, LiDAR, and vision
  • Cooperative sensing and communications: V2V, other traffic participants and infrastructure, data/computation stored in cloud and edge servers

2. Generate and Analyze Realistic PNT Threat Scenarios

Objective: Carry out thorough risk identification studies to understand the impact of interference on highly automated vehicles (HAVs) using risk and failure analysis methodologies and modeling and simulation tools.

  • Analysis and simulation of PNT threat
  • Analysis and simulation of motivating scenarios
  • Scenario and threat risk analysis based on literature review
  • Analysis, simulation, and experimental demonstration and testing

3. Develop Risk Mitigation Strategies to HATS

Objective: Develop new PNT lapse mitigation strategies for HATS, which are: (i) robust in the face of unusual natural or accidental events and (ii) secure against deliberate attack 

  • RF PNT threat scenario evaluation
  • HAV threat testing
  • Low-cost ground vehicle anti-spoofing
  • Robust and accurate ground and aerial HAV PNT with SOPs
  • Physics-based anomaly detection
  • Machine learning PNT model security

4. Craft Standards & Guidelines for Cyber Resilient PNT Systems

Objective: Complement existing methods for cyber resilient PNT receiver testing, develop new mitigation methods, and propose standards and create “best practices” documents and guidelines. We will focus on PNT receiver usage specific to HATS, predominantly on ground vehicles and then on aerial and maritime platforms

  • Resilient receiver antenna validation
  • PNT integrity monitoring
  • PNT cyber security in HAVs
  • Receiver data validation by PNT solutions from non-GNSS sources

5. Validate in Real-World Jammed and Spoofed Environments
Validate our developed research and proposed standards in real-world jammed and spoofed environments